Core principles of Object-Oriented Programming

Core principles of Object-Oriented Programming

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that focuses on organizing code around objects and their interactions. It helps to create more modular, maintainable, and reusable code. Here are the basic concepts and principles of OOP:

Classes and Objects:

A class is a blueprint or template for creating objects. It defines properties (attributes) and methods (functions) that objects of that class will have. An object is an instance of a class. It represents a specific entity with its own set of properties and methods.


Encapsulation is the practice of bundling data (attributes) and functions (methods) that operate on the data within a single unit, i.e., a class. It provides a way to hide the internal details of a class and expose only what is necessary through a well-defined interface. This helps to reduce complexity and improve maintainability.


Inheritance allows a class to inherit properties and methods from another class, promoting code reusability and modularity. The class that is being inherited from is called the “parent” or “superclass,” while the class that inherits is called the “child” or “subclass.” Subclasses can override or extend the properties and methods of their parent class.


Polymorphism enables a single interface or method to represent different types or classes. It allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. This enables more flexible and extensible code. Polymorphism can be achieved through method overriding (in inheritance) or interfaces.


Abstraction is the process of simplifying complex systems by breaking them into smaller, more manageable parts. In OOP, abstraction is achieved by creating abstract classes or interfaces that define common properties and methods that a group of related classes should have. Abstract classes and interfaces cannot be instantiated; they must be extended or implemented by concrete classes.

These core principles of OOP help developers create code that is more modular, maintainable, and easier to understand. When applied correctly, OOP can significantly improve the quality and organization of software.